The medical model of mental illness treats mental disorders in the same way as a broken arm, i.e. Minnesota Symposium in Child Psychology, 8, 77−125. He argued that all people travel through six different stages of moral development. Aichorn felt that stress only produced crime in those who had a particular mental state known as latent delinquency. The social‐cultural perspective. Interestingly, a number of studies have found that while minor depression is related to an increased probability of minor criminality, major bipolar depression is not Criminology, 39, 765−799. Lykken, David. (1999). Mental illnesses affect the very fabric of human nature, robbing it of its various facets of personality, purposeful behaviour, abstract... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. There is considerable debate about the causal direction of the personality-violence association. Wilson, James Q. and Richard Hernstein. The psychological concept of “personality” has been defined as stable patterns of behaviour, thoughts or actions that distinguish one person from another (see Seigel and McCormick, 2006: 180). (2002). In fact, the majority of people convicted of violent crimes in Canada and the US do not have a psychopathic personality (see reviews in Edens et al., 2001; Lykken, 1996). In sum, research gives tentative support for the idea that mental disturbance or illness may be a root or underlying cause of violent behaviour. According to this perspective, aggressive children are more vigilant and suspicious than normal youth are – a factor that greatly increases their likelihood of engaging in violent behaviour. conduct disorder: Conduct disorder is a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. and violence in a total birth cohort. By the sixth stage, however, people obey the law because it is an assumed obligation and because they believe in the universal principles of justice, equity, and respect for others. Mental disorder is a statistically significant risk factor for the occurrence of violence.”. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, Disorders usually first evident in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, Development of physical and pharmacological treatments, Further developments in the mental health profession, Humanistic and existential psychotherapies. The second major psychological theory is behaviorism. result of their day-to-day experiences (Bandura, 1977). Others have not held up under close scientific scrutiny and may have been rejected altogether or only partially accepted by researchers today. Secondary prevention efforts, on the other hand, provide psychological treatment after a crime has been committed and the offender has become involved in the criminal justice system. Kohlberg, L. (1969). there is thought to be a physical cause. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 130−132. Denno, Deborah. Through this process people perceive situation, gain knowledge and experience through social interactions. Arsenault, L., Terrie Moffit, A. Caspi, P. Taylor and P. Silva. Many of these theories are discussed in upcoming sections of this report. The psychoanalyst who is perhaps most closely associated with the study of criminality is August Aichorn. Similarly, people do not become more intelligent as they age. This model has been adopted by psychiatrists rather than psychologists. In their most extreme form, underdeveloped egos (or superegos) can lead to “psychosis” and the inability to feel sympathy for the victims of crime (see DiNapoli, 2002; Seigel and McCormick, 2006). In sum, research suggests that psychopaths have a significantly higher likelihood of violence than others do. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 19(1), 53−80. DiNapoli, P. P. (2002). Mental disorders It is pertinent to know the commonly held attributions around mental illness so as to effectively provide psychological care, especially in a resource constrained context such as Kenya. A personality-based model of adolescent violence. – that may have a strong impact on violent behaviour. (1997). Oldham, A.E. Psychopathy Checklist: Youth version of the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory: A comparison study. Most subsequent psychotherapies have stressed in their theories of causation aspects of earlier, maladaptive psychological development that had been missed or underemphasized by orthodox psychoanalysis, or they have incorporated insights taken from learning theory. Drug Forecasting in 1995. Kohlberg, L., K. Kauffman, P. Schart and J. Hickey. Intelligence, they maintain, is largely determined by the quality of the parental bond, the level of intellectual stimulation received during early childhood, the nature of local peer-group relations, and the quality of neighbourhood schools. Psychoanalysis and other dynamic therapies help a person achieve a controlled and therapeutic recovery that is based on a conscious awareness of repressed mental conflicts along with an understanding of their influence on past history and present difficulties. Cruise and E. Cauffman. This theory of schizophrenia advanced by Ronald Laing holds schizophrenia not as an illness but as a label for a certain kind of problematic experience and behaviour. Costello, B. J. and R.G. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 17−21. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency. Much of the early work on the link between IQ and crime has been dismissed as overly simplistic and as unsubstantiated owing to poor research designs. This finding suggests that, because of information processing issues, some offenders can’t recognize the harm they are doing to others (Langton and Marshall, 2001; Lipton et al., 1987). On the one hand, some scholars have argued that there is a direct causal link between certain personality traits and criminal behaviour. Lochman, J. If so, some people may come to use alcohol and drugs as an excuse or justification for their violent behaviour. For example, a specific gene has been associated with bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depressive disorder), but unfortunately, the °switch" that controls the expression of the disorder … 92−100). Furthermore, the distinct possibility that IQ tests are both culturally biased and class-biased greatly undermines the validity of previous research. Stages in the Development of Moral Thought and Action. Cognitive theorists focus on how people perceive their social environment and learn to solve problems. Psychoanalytic theories focus on unresolved internal and relational conflicts. 357−375). Over the past 100 years, psychological perspectives on violence have had a major impact on crime control and crime prevention policy. Interestingly, the data also reveal that psychopathy is a weaker predictor of violent recidivism among more racially diverse samples. Brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to … Crime and Human Nature. In a controversial article that appeared in the late 1970s, Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang reviewed existing data on the intelligence-crime relationship and concluded that IQ is a stronger predictor of crime and violence than many other demographic characteristics are – including social class (see Hirschi and Hindelang, 1997). For example, a Corrections Canada survey of over 6,000 inmates, many of them violent offenders, found that 48 per cent admitted to using illegal drugs at the time of their offence (Seigel and McCormick, 2006). Psychologists think that a number of early childhood factors might contribute to the development of a psychopathic or sociopathic personality. However, if the aggressive impulse is not controlled, or is repressed to an unusual degree, some aggression can “leak out” of the unconscious and a person can engage in random acts of violence. These results highlighted the possibility that IQ tests may be culturally biased. Much of the contemporary debate centres on whether intelligence is biologically based or the product of environmental conditions. Mental illness is perceived when there are high levels of distress and dysfunction at the psychological level of analysis (the behavior and experience of the individual). Mental Deficiency and Crime. Mental Disorders and Crime. There a many different psychological models of criminal behavior ranging from early Freudian notions to later cognitive and social psychological models. Campbell, and J.M. Freudian and other psychodynamic theories view neurotic symptoms as arising from intrapsychic conflict—i.e., the existence of conflicting motives, drives, impulses, and feelings held within various components of the mind. Attendance at such programs may also be a mandatory requirement of probation or parole. Monahan, John. Another study followed 1,000 English children from birth to their 21st birthday and found that only two per cent of the sample met the DSM-III diagnostic criteria for mental illness. Specifically, the most comprehensive psychological theories have been advanced by the psychodynamic perspective and to a lesser extent the Jungian (analytical) perspective. Essentially, both theories cite developmental problems in childhood as leading to the development of the narcissistic disorder. Each theory has helped contribute t… (1920). Veneziano, Carl and Louis Veneziano. These experiences, proponents of the behaviourist tradition maintain, might include observing friends or family being rewarded for violent behaviour, or even observing the glorification of violence in the media. Terms of use |  The Moral Judgment of the Child. These perspectives include the psychodynamic perspective, behavioural theory, cognitive theory and personality theory. The Psychology of Criminal Conduct. First they encode and interpret the information or stimuli they are presented with, then they search for a proper response or appropriate action, and finally, they act on their decision (Dodge, 1986). Simplistic notions that low intelligence causes crime and delinquency often led to disastrous results. On the other hand, even when presented with the opportunity, people with higher levels of moral reasoning will refrain from criminal behaviour because they think it is wrong. Boston: Budget Press. Intelligence and delinquency: A revisionist review. Ottawa: The Centre of Excellence in Children’s Mental Health. For example, one recent study documented that affective disorders are related to aggression at both home and school. After being condemned by Sutherland as an unproductive line of inquiry, research on the IQ-crime relationship disappeared from the criminological literature for several decades. Substance abuse – including alcoholism – has now been formally recognized as a mental illness. Frequency, specialization and violence in offending careers. Edwin. These mental contents may at some time be pushed out of conscious awareness but remain actively held in the unconscious. However, others maintain that personality characteristics interact with other factors to produce crime and violence. ), Social Attitudes (pp. Langton, Calvin and W. Marshall. Since the appearance of this article, a large number of other international studies have emerged that the support the existence of the IQ-violence relationship (Piquero, 2000; Lynam et al., 1993; Denno, 1985). Hillbrand, Marc, J. Krystal, K. Sharpe and H. Foster. From the social‐cultural perspective, abnormal behavior is learned … However, psychopaths are particularly over-represented among chronic offenders. Criminology, 23, 711−741. A number of early criminologists argued that certain personality types are more prone to criminal behaviour. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(6), 446−448. A second way that substance abuse may increase violence is by increasing economic need. Sutherland. Rosner, R. (1979). The findings further demonstrate that psychopathy is significantly related to both general and violent recidivism, but only weakly associated with sexual recidivism. Studies have also found that people who live in violent communities learn to model the aggressive behaviour of their neighbours (Bartol, 2002). Behavioural theorists have argued that the following four factors help produce violence: 1) a stressful event or stimulus – like a threat, challenge or assault – that heightens arousal; 2) aggressive skills or techniques learned through observing others; 3) a belief that aggression or violence will be socially rewarded (by, for example, reducing frustration, enhancing self-esteem, providing material goods or earning the praise of other people); and 4) a value system that condones violent acts within certain social contexts. Beck (1967) identified three mechanisms that he thought were responsible for depression:The cognitive triad are three forms of negative (i.e. Resolving the debate over birth order, family size and intelligence. As biosocial theorists do, psychologists focus on how individual characteristics may interact with the social environment to produce a violent event. (1994). (1979). News Vaughn, M. G. and M.O. (2007). Some argue, for example, that low intelligence leads to poor school performance. Skodol and J.S. Toronto: Nelson-Thomson. Youth psychopathy and criminal recidivism: A meta-analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist measures. Psychological testing also suggests that crime-prone youth are also impulsive, paranoid, aggressive, hostile, and quick to take action against perceived threats (Avshalom et al., 1994). Many drug addicts, for example, engage in violent crimes (including robbery) in order to gain enough money to support their habits. Freudian and other psychodynamic theories view neurotic symptoms as arising from intrapsychic conflict—i.e., the existence of conflicting motives, drives, impulses, and feelings held within various components of the mind. 1A “significant” mental health disorder was defined as a condition that is serious enough to warrant outside intervention. Young children – in the first three years of life – who do not have the opportunity to emotionally bond with their mothers, experience a sudden separation from their mothers, or see changes in their mother figures are at particularly high risk of developing a psychopathic personality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 404−410. May 2008; DOI: 10.1002/9780470713594.ch4. Profile of State Prison Inmates 1986. Delinquency and Criminals: Their Making and Unmaking. It is sufficient to note that Freud thought that human behaviour, including violent behaviour, was the product of “unconscious” forces operating within a person’s mind. It is also argued that youth with weak egos are immature and easily led into crime and violence by deviant peers (Andrews and Bonta, 1994). For example, after an extensive review of the literature, Monohan (2000: 112) noted that “[n]o matter how many social and demographic factors are statistically taken into account, there appears to be a greater than chance relationship between mental disorder and violent behaviour. (1994). In general, these pioneering studies reported that the IQ scores of delinquents were significantly lower than the IQ scores of normal controls (Goddard, 1920; Healy and Bronner, 1926). Theories of psychological disorders are also increasingly likely to focus on biological mechanisms. For example, defiant, impulsive youth often have less-than-stellar educational and work histories. The construct of psychopathy and its potential contribution to the study of serious, violent, and chronic youth offending. Research also suggests that mental health issues may put young people at risk of engaging in violent behaviour. The Roots of Violence: Evidence from the Literature with Emphasis on Child and Youth Mental Disorder. Assessment of juvenile psychopathy and its association with violence: A critical review. Freud also felt that early childhood experiences had a profound impact on adolescent and adult behaviour. Mental illness affects every segment of population including young adults. Violence-prone youth, for example, may see people as more threatening or aggressive than they actually are. (1977). Major mental disorders and violence to others. As people are anxious, fear a threatening situation, or have low perceived feelings of control over situations, they tend to conspiracies.” This was found to be especially true in people who have a need to exert control over their environment — they like the feeling of being in control at all times. A contemporary, promising approach is to view disorders as originating from an integration of biological and psychosocial factors. Indeed, it is estimated that up to 80 per cent of chronic offenders exhibit psychopathic personalities. The authors searched and coded both published and unpublished studies completed between 1990 and 2005. Miller, J. and D. Lynam. Research suggests that depression, a relatively common disorder among youth, may be related to aggression. (2004). Genetics is at this time an important area of research for psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia and personality: Exploring the boundaries and connections between vulnerability and outcome. For example, an extensive review by the American Psychological Association found only a small relationship between intelligence and criminal behaviour. Sleep Disorders. However, this two per cent was responsible for 50 per cent of the violent incidents that were documented during the study period (see Arsenault et al., 2000). associated with violence, including self-assertiveness, defiance, extroversion, narcissism and suspicion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157 (9), 1406−1412. Higher levels of moral reasoning, on the other hand, are associated with acts of altruism, generosity and non-violence (Veneziano and Veneziano, 1992). Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 187−196. People with low intelligence, they argued, were much more likely to engage in crime and violence than people with Englander, Elizabeth. Most experts agree, for example, that the measurement of IQ is extremely problematic. Thus, from the perspective of symbolic interaction theory of sociology, mental illness can be considered as social construct. Judges often recommend them at the sentencing stage. Egotism and delinquent behavior. Berenbaum, Howard and Frank Fujita. These blocked opportunities, in turn, lead to frustration, deprivation, and ultimately, criminal activity (Miller and Lynam, 2001). The most significant criticism of the psychoanalytic perspective is that it is based on information derived from therapists’ subjective interpretations of interviews with a very small number of patients (see Englander, 2007). (2001). Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 148-158. Individual differences conducive to aggression and violence: Trajectories and correlates of irritability and hostile rumination through adolescence. This may cause some youth to react with violence at the slightest provocation. Cognitive theorists focus on how people perceive their social environment and learn to solve problems. Criminology, 32, 163−195. It has been estimated that approximately 30 per cent of all prison inmates in the United States are psychopaths. Recent research also indicates that male rapists often have little sympathy for their own victims, but do in fact empathize with the female victims of other sexual offenders. New York: Henry Holt. Crime and Delinquency, 23, 312−320. Major Theories of Etiology of Mental Disorders Biological Model: This theory uses biology, body-chemistry, neurons, and DNA to explain the development of mental health disorders. New York: Viking Press. Freudian theory views childhood as the primary breeding ground of neurotic conflicts. Edens, J. F., J.S. Goddard, Henry. Atkins, R. (2007). Studies of family life, for example, show that aggressive children often model the violent behaviours of their parents. More-modern psychodynamic theories have moved away from the idea of explaining and treating neurosis on the basis of a defect in a single psychological system and have instead adopted a more complex notion of multiple causes, including emotional, psychosexual, social, cultural, and existential ones. School administrators, teachers, social workers, youth courts and employers frequently make referrals to these programs. Consistent with this perspective, research suggests that some youth who engage in violent attacks on others actually believe that they are defending themselves, even when they have totally misinterpreted the level of threat (Lochman, 1987). Howard. They are: (a) psychodynamic theory, (b) behavioral theory, (c) cognitive theory, (d) social theory, (e) humanistic theory, and (f) biological theory. Adolescent Medicine, 45, 4−13. Washington: National Institute of Justice. For example, in the 1920s, the governments of British Columbia and Alberta passed “negative eugenics” laws that called for the sterilization of people thought to possess low intelligence or other negative psychological characteristics. Contact Us, You are here > Home > Professionals > Ontario's Youth Action Plan > Roots of Youth Violence > Volume 5 > Psychological Theories. Behaviour theory maintains that all human behaviour – including violent behaviour – is learned through interaction with the social environment. For example, Slawson (1926) found that although adolescent offenders tended to score lower on verbal intelligence tests, they had normal scores on measures of nonverbal Bartol, Curt. helpless and critical) thinking that are typical of individuals with depression: namely negative thoughts about the self, the world and the future. Another major area of psychological inquiry involves the possible relationship between intelligence and crime. (1992). Organizations involved in such primary prevention efforts include family therapy centres, mental health associations, school counselling programs and substance abuse clinics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Many of these studies, however, suggest that the IQ-crime relationship is quite weak.  |  As such, psychological theorists have been charged with ignoring larger social forces – including poverty, social inequality, neighbourhood disorganization and racism Neo-Freudian authorities such as Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney, and Erich Fromm modified Freudian theory by emphasizing social relationships and cultural and environmental factors as being important in the formation of mental disorders. Many of these programs are based on social learning principles. Johnson, J. G., P. Cohen, E. Smailes, S. Kasen, J.M. However, rather than focus on the biological basis of crime, psychologists focus on how mental processes impact individual propensities for violence. The Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) have frequently been used to assess the personality characteristics of young people. Under such laws, which remained in effect until the 1970s, over 5,000 people in Canada were approved for sterilization. Kohlberg (1969) applied the concept of moral development to the study of criminal behaviour. The relationship between deterrence and moral reasoning. (1926). As a result, behavioural theory directly contributed to the development of social learning theories of deviance (differential association theory, sub-cultural theory, neutralization theory, etc.). Furthermore, the research evidence also suggests that psychopaths often continue with their criminal careers long after others have aged out of crime. It is interesting to note that Freud himself did not theorize much about crime or violence. Adolescent personality disorders associated with violence and criminal behavior during adolescence and early adulthood. Feucht, Thomas. Schizophrenia, for example, has been explained in terms of several biological theories, including theories that focus on genetics, neurotransmitters, brain structures, and even prenatal exposure to … Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 9−13. At the first stage, people only obey the law because they are afraid of punishment. Social Learning Theory. (2000). (2005). Cognitive Theory: In the 1950's, a psychologist named Albert Ellis, and a psychiatrist named Aaron Beck, independently developed two very similar theories. (1935). These approaches marked a convergence of psychoanalytic theory and behavioral theory, especially with regard to each theory’s view of disease causation. The moral and intellectual development perspective is the branch of cognitive theory that is most associated with the study of crime and violence. 1987. London: Kegan Paul. Ontario.ca Furthermore, numerous cross-national surveys of prison inmates reveal that the vast majority were under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of their offence (Innes, 1988). In a related chapter entitled “A Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders,” new to the current edition, Dr. Aaron Pincus describes “individual differences in personality disorder phenomenology through the structural models, operational definitions, and empirical methods of the interpersonal tradition” (p. 316). Criminal offenders may have a number of mood disorders that are ultimately manifested as depression, rage, narcissism, and social isolation. (2001). Findings, Analysis and Conclusions, The Root Causes of Youth Violence: A Review of Major Theoretical Perspectives, Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theory, Perceptions of Injustice, Crime and Violence, Preventing Youth Crime and Violence: A Review of the Literature. Site map, © Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010-15 A recent meta-analysis conducted by Edens and his colleagues (2007) summarizes juvenile recidivism data in relation to psychopathology. In Kimball Young (Ed. (1996). Many argue that the expansion of such (1996). Monahan, John. Psychologists are often interested in the association between learning, intelligence, and personality and aggressive behaviour. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 6, 499−518. Rogers, L., H. Cleveland, E. van den Oorg and D. Rowe. Sorralls, James. The Self-determination Theory of motivation (SDT), and more specifically, the Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) posit that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the primary supports for well-being and optimal functioning (SDT, n.d.) (1996). A detailed discussion of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis is beyond the scope of this report. The issue of human violence is also a major topic within the academic discipline of psychology. The psychological perspective, in contrast, emphasizes the importance of psychological factors (e.g., stress and thoughts) and environmental factors in the development of psychological disorders. But this threatened release of forbidden impulses or memories provokes anxiety and is seen as threatening, and a variety of defense mechanisms may then come into play to provide relief from the state of psychic conflict. Psychopaths are also said to be able to justify their actions to themselves so that they always appear to be reasonable and justified. (1950). Heterosocial perception in rapists. Pliszka, S., J. Sherman, M. Barrow and S. Irick. (1991). Modestin, J., A. Poor education and employment histories subsequently block opportunities for economic success. In fact, some critics maintain that “nothing works” with respect to the rehabilitation of chronic offenders (Griffiths and Cunningham, 2000). Many of these studies are dedicated to testing and developing effective treatment approaches. (2007). A social information processing model of social competence in children. Since Aichorn’s early work, psychoanalysts have come to view violent criminals as “iddominated” However, the issue of a possible association between intelligence and violence has persisted into this century. (2000). Cincinnati: Anderson. intelligence. human impulse that is repressed in well-adjusted people who have experienced a normal childhood. Biomedical Theory• Mental illness can be a result of something physical• Mental illness may be a symptom of an organic disease• Mental illness has an organic basis 38. Review of nervous system - neuroanatomy 39. Avshalom, Caspi, Terri Moffitt, P. Silva, M. Stouthamer-Loeber, R. Krueger and P. Schmutte. Indeed, major depression may be too crippling a disorder to permit someone to form intent and act out in a violent manner (see Modestin et al., 1997). Box 10-1 defines these six theories. Anthropologists have shown, for example, that the social effects of alcohol vary dramatically from country to country. Psychoanalytic theory’s emphasis on the unconscious mind and its influence on human behaviour resulted in a proliferation of other, related theories of causation incorporating—but not limited to—basic psychoanalytic precepts. , violence from theory to research, ( pp these programs violence in young adolescents behavior from! In children the relief of symptoms and improved mental functioning have had a profound impact on the basis... Of violent recidivism, but only weakly associated with the relief of and!, it is interesting to note, however, rather than focus on biological mechanisms “ effect. State known as latent delinquency a weaker predictor of future violence in young adolescents as egocentric manipulative... Higher likelihood of aggressive behaviour a major topic within the academic discipline of psychology of.... 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