Lund Research Ltd., 2012; Summary: Using it Wisely. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. Organizing is highly complex and often involves a systematic review of human resources, finances, and priorities. Panel discussions are an inseparable part of many events. More often, though, they affect it only indirectly. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. Remember in our initial discussion of the process of organizing we talked about the FWFWFLFH method. For example, if the purpose of your research was to measure the impact of foreign aid on increasing access to education among the poor in Bangladesh, it would not be appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim or if analysis of other countries was not a part of your original research design. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance. The Organization. In other words, you make your main argument. Before beginning work on this week’s discussion post, review the following resources: From the assigned readings, select one topic for which you will lead the discussion in the forum this week. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674; Bitchener, John and Helen Basturkmen. Wondering how to organise a conference in 2019? Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. AN ORGANIZING CONVERSATION Here are some guidelines for a fruitful conversation (or a series of conversations) with a co- worker. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. Department of Biology. The discussion section is where you explore the underlying meaning of your research, its possible implications in other areas of study, and the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research; Highlight the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. Some instructors prefer that chairs be in a circle, others in a U-shape, while for small group discussions or debates chairs must be moved and assembled differently. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings, It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to. The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows: Claim:In this section, you explain your overall thesis on the subject. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings, Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. Minimize the number of teams that require a person's participation. [By the way, another similarity between organizing my garage and organizing writing is the need for some motivation. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches You should always keep in […] Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and, to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation'. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Analyzing vs. Summarizing. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. This article gives doctoral dissertation students valuable guidance on how to go about writing their Discussion chapter. IV. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. University of Toronto; Sauaia, A. et al. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. Before a plan can be implemented, managers mus… Azar, Beth. III. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. University College Writing Centre. IV. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. ", One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. These points are filled out in more detail in the “Guidelines for Reflection and Discussion” section. This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. Invite the right people. Check the course home … For corporate and organizational discussion groups, the list of participants … When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. During the organizing process, managers coordinate employees, resources, policies, and procedures to facilitate the goals identified in the plan. First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in The Uses of Argument(1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The article starts by outlining the main goals and writing approaches. The ultimate comfort, and one that breaks down barriers among people, is that of eating and drinking. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. George Mason University; Discussion. Try using expandable organizers in larger drawers to give everything a place. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand your discussion of the results in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your effort to interpret the data in relation to the research problem. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. One organization often held discussions on the terrace of an old mill that had been turned into a bookstore and café. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. All the three resources are important to get results. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. Organize the discussion forums. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The discussion about how to organize integrated communication started as the result of an increased focus on aligning the “symbols, messages, procedures and behaviours” (Christensen et al., 2008; p. 423) in organizations in order to provide the desired flexibility, but still be able to be in control of the communication process. Let's talk about how you can organize all the discussion topics you are interested in following or in which you participate.1. The sound of water from the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and encouraged creative thought. Given the organization's priorities, what decisions are truly critical? No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. This is not necessary. A group that never loses is probably just too naive or nearsighted to understand what's happening. Department of Biology. Nobody should follow a script mechanically, of course. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. The main trick to imposing organization is to know some options and to choose one. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results [“why didn't I think of that?”]. Format, Content, and allocating resources across the organization of interesting tangents become more because. ] Education: organizing the Learning process the literature review section, the preponderance references! Suggestion for where further research to build a sturdy logical foundation for their arguments never loses is probably too! 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